End Times Revealed

Are you looking for Biblical answers to the chaos around you? Does the Bible have anything to say about the future of America and her place in End-Time events? The Bible says the earth's final war is coming. Are you prepared? Join us today! Be prepared!
 
HomeHome  CalendarCalendar  GalleryGallery  FAQFAQ  SearchSearch  MemberlistMemberlist  UsergroupsUsergroups  RegisterRegister  Log inLog in  Share  

Share | 
 

 Revelation Chapter 4

View previous topic View next topic Go down 
AuthorMessage
Roy
Admin
avatar

Male Number of posts : 211
Age : 67
Location : Northern Arizona
Registration date : 2009-01-12

PostSubject: Revelation Chapter 4   Fri Jun 23, 2017 7:31 pm


The third major section of Revelation begins here:

“the things which shall be hereafter”

Verses 4:1 – 5:14: (1:19). Chapters 4 and 5 establish Christ’s right and authority to act as the Judge of the earth. God on His throne invests the Lion of the tribe of Judah with the authority to establish His dominion and kingdom on earth because of His redeeming work as the Lamb.

"After this I looked, and, behold, a door [was] opened in heaven: and the first voice which I heard [was] as it were of a trumpet talking with me; which said, Come up hither, and I will show thee things which must be hereafter" (Rev. 4:1).

What do you think is being talked about in this first verse? The literal meaning is “after these things (after the things which concern the churches) I (John) looked and the first voice said to me (John) come up hither, and I (Jesus Christ) will shew thee things which must be after these things,” that is, after the churches.
This emphasizes the third and last natural division of the book which includes “things” which “must be” after the rapture of the Church. These three divisions do not overlap, nor are they concurrent. One division is completely finished before the other begins. “After this,” that is, after seeing Christ in the midst of the candelsticks and His foreview of the history of Christendom until the rapture of the Church, John looked and saw a door already opened in heaven. He saw the door to the heavenly tabernacle, which was the pattern for the door to the earthly tabernacle, Heb. 8:5; 9:23-24.
The same silver-toned voice that spoke to John in the first division of the book (Rev. 1:10) spoke to him here and said, “Come up hither, and I will shew thee things which must be hereafter.” John doubtless was caught up to heaven bodily as were Enoch (Gen. 5:21-24; Heb. 11:5), Elijah (2 Ki. 2), and probably Paul (2 Cor. 12:1-10). The term “Come up hither” is used once more in the book and then it is of the bodily ascension of the two witnesses to heaven, Rev. 11:12.
Matthew 24:31 “And he shall send his angels with a great sound of a trumpet, and they shall gather together his elect from the four winds, from one end of heaven to the other.”
All the elect are gathered and assembled before Christ. This is the culmination of world history, ushering in the millennial reign of Christ.
This will be the trumpet of assembly (the silver trumpet of redemption), "four" (in Matthew 24:31), means the entire world. We've all heard the saying: "from the four corners of the earth I'm sure. This assembly will not be just Americans, but the true believers from every country of the world. These "angels" are ministering spirits who carry out these orders of their Lord and Master. The "He" here is Jesus (Messiah), but now He is Lord of lords and King of kings.
This "sound of a Trumpet" could be a literal trumpet blowing, or it could be the voice of our Lord sounding like a trumpet. This is the last chronological mention of silver in the Bible. There will be no silver in heaven. "Silver" means redemption, and there is no silver there; because we have already been redeemed. There is only gold in heaven. In the Holy of Holies, there was only gold, because in the presence of God, there was only gold. This gathering together of His elect is what is commonly referred to as the rapture of the church. His church has no denomination. It is "all" who truly believe in the Lord Jesus Christ.
1 Corinthians 15:52 "In a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, at the last trump: for the trumpet shall sound, and the dead shall be raised incorruptible, and we shall be changed."
1 Thessalonians 4:16-17 "For the Lord himself shall descend from heaven with a shout, with the voice of the archangel, and with the trump of God: and the dead in Christ shall rise first:" "Then we which are alive [and] remain shall be caught up together with them in the clouds, to meet the Lord in the air: and so shall we ever be with the Lord."
To really understand read all of this account. I have chosen just two verses from the account for here. This will happen so quickly that you would not even have time to blink your eye.
The "I" (in verse 1), is of course John who is writing this. Jesus has been speaking in the previous chapter directly. Now we hear from John about the things he saw. This is after Jesus finishes His messages to the seven churches.
We will see the number "seven" throughout Revelation. Seven means "spiritually complete". Perhaps in this number, God is saying, this is it. There is nothing else to read. If you can't get the message in Revelation, you cannot receive it.
John takes a look toward heaven and is startled "behold", the door of heaven is open. Jesus is the door to heaven. The door of heaven is not closed to the believers in the Lord Jesus Christ. Jesus opened the way to the very throne of God, when the temple curtain was torn from the top to the bottom (opening the way to the holy of holies), when He died on the cross (Matthew 27:51).
The word "looked" is important also. We must seek before we can find. Jesus is coming back for those who are looking for Him.
Notice, this door was "opened" in the past tense. It is not going to be opened. Jesus opened it for us. It is now open to believers.
John 10:7 "Then said Jesus unto them again, Verily, verily, I say unto you, I am the door of the sheep."
Heaven is presently the dwelling place of God. It will also be our eternal home.
The first voice that John hears is either the voice of Jesus Himself, or the voice of Jesus' own personal messenger. It makes no difference, the message itself is from Jesus. When the Lord calls us to meet Him in the air, when the church is caught away, we will hear the trumpet; the silver trumpet of redemption.
There are several other instances in the Bible where the door of heaven was opened. Many prophets also, have seen a vision of the heavenly.
Ezekiel speaks of his look into heaven. Daniel had a glimpse into heaven. When Stephen was stoned to death, he saw into heaven.
When Stephen looked into heaven, he saw Jesus standing at the right hand of God. Most times, Jesus is seated at the right hand because His work is completed, but I believe that He was standing to receive His faithful servant, Stephen, home.
This door has never been closed to the true believers.
When the Lord calls us to meet Him in the air, when the church is caught away, we will hear the trumpet; the silver trumpet of redemption.
In Both (Matthew 24:31 and 1 Thessalonians 4:16), I read at first the voice and the trumpet seem to be interchangeable. The voice of Jesus and His personal angel are a little confusing, as well. Either way the message is from Jesus. This trumpet was talking with John.
The voice that John heard was like a trumpet. This is a powerful voice; it gives a true sound. This voice is talking to us, as well as John.
The voice said, "come up hither" to John, but is always saying to us, "come up hither". Get your mind off the things of this world and look heavenward. The call of Jesus has always been "come". In this specific sentence, He tells John "come up hither", then adds why.
Jesus, the voice, says, "I will shew thee things which must be hereafter." John will be shown a look into the future. John could have had a vision of this, or he could have been transported into heaven for a moment in time to see all of this. We do know that viewing something from the earth makes us see just the here and now. From a heavenly point, we can see yesterday and tomorrow.
Notice that these things of the hereafter must be. Why must they be? Because God ordered it from the beginning of the world and God never changes. We must change to fit His plan, not the other way around.
John is not told a specific time in the hereafter, only that it will be later than the present time he is in.
John is now seeing into the future, after the believers in Christ are raptured into heaven, in this particular scene.
Verses 2-5: “In the spirit”: The first thing John saw in heaven was the throne of God, the Father, who was to look upon “like a jasper and a sardine stone.” This throne is the center of activity of the book. It is the one seen throughout the book down to Rev. 21:22-22:5 where it is associated with the throne of the Lamb. The gems and the “rainbow” show the glory of God (compare Ezek. 1:22-28). The 24 “elders” represent the raptured church in heaven. Their “seats” or thrones show a reward of authority in the millennial kingdom (compare 20:4), and their “crowns” (Greek stephanos), are crowns of reward from the judgment seat of Christ (compare Rom. 14:10; 1 Cor. 3:12-15; 2 Cor. 5:10). The “white raiment” shows their righteousness, which has now been judged and purified. The number “four and twenty”, represents the church as priests before God. David divided the Levitical priesthood into 24 sections (1 Chron. 24:7-19). Believers are seen here as a kingdom of priests (compare 1:6). Old Testament saints are not yet included, since they will not be resurrected and rewarded until after the Tribulation period (compare Dan. 12:1-3). The “seven lamps” or “seven spirits” again symbolize the Holy Spirit of God (compare 1:4).

"And immediately I was in the spirit: and, behold, a throne was set in heaven, and [one] sat on the throne" (Rev. 4:2).

John was already in the Spirit we know from a previous lesson, but this means a deeper experience in the Spirit. A double dose of the Spirit, you might say.
“Throne”: A symbol of sovereign rule and authority (7:15; 11:19; 16:17-18; compare Isa. 6:1). It is the focus (of chapter 4), occurring 13 times, 11 times referring to God’s throne a literal throne occupied by God.
John was changed or transported, instantly. This throne, as we said before, has been seen by many in the Bible. The word "one" does not literally mean "one" but, I believe it means the unity of the trinity.
(1) God the Father;
(2) God the Son or God the Word;
(3) God the Holy Spirit.
The word "sat" is indicative that the work is complete.
A throne shows rulership and power. Notice that the "throne" was "set in heaven"; set is past tense. This throne is occupied even now in heaven, where Jesus sits at the right hand of the Father.

"And he that sat was to look upon like a jasper and a sardine stone: and [there was] a rainbow round about the throne, in sight like unto an emerald" (Rev. 4:3).

The "jasper and sardine stone" were the most precious of all stones. The beauty of God was so dazzling that John could not describe Him. The jasper was the last and the sardine the first stone in the breastplate worn by the high priest (Exodus 28:17-20). These stones are in the foundation of the new Jerusalem (Revelation 21:19-20).
The diamond and ruby are meant by these stones. These stones are known for their clearness and brightness.
There was a diamond between the breastplate and the heart of the high priest. The name engraved on this stone, I believe, is the unspeakable name of God Almighty. The diamond stone next to the heart stood for purity and mercy.
The emerald is another precious stone, green in color. Green means "earthly or of the earth". The emerald was also part of the breastplate, and of the foundation of New Jerusalem.
The value of these three different stones is greater than other stones. These are classified as precious stones and are very expensive.
This rainbow is green (earthly), to show the covenant between God and man. The first rainbow mentioned was a sign of a promise from God to man. God would never again destroy the earth by water. Sometimes it is called a bow, and sometimes a rainbow. The rainbow encircles the throne as a constant reminder to God and man of the covenant. This is a beautiful sight to behold.

"And round about the throne [were] four and twenty seats: and upon the seats I saw four and twenty elders sitting, clothed in white raiment; and they had on their heads crowns of gold" (Rev. 4:4).

The “four and twenty seats” were actually thrones. Miniature thrones in authority, subordinate to God, but nevertheless they surround the throne of God.
“Four and twenty elders”: Their joint rule with Christ, their white garments, and their golden crowns all indicate that these 24 represent the redeemed (verses 9:11; 5:5-14; 7:11-17; 11:16-18; 14:3; 19:4). The question is which redeemed? Not Israel, since the nation is not yet saved, glorified, and coronated. That is still to come at this point in the events of the end. Their resurrection and glory will come at the end of the 7 year tribulation time (compare Dan. 12:1-3). Tribulation saints aren’t yet saved (7:9-10). Only one group will be complete and glorified at that point, the Church. Here elders represent the church, which sings the song of redemption (5:8-10). They are the overcomers who have their crowns and live in the place prepared for them, where they have gone with Jesus (compare John 14:1-4).
The twenty-four elders who represent the redeemed in heaven acknowledge that humans were created by God for His good pleasure. Their response of praise recognizes the sovereignty of God over our lives.
One of the most controversial questions raised by this vision of the throne of God is the identity of the 24 elders.
In (Rev. 5:9), the Scriptures tells us the four and twenty elders sung a new song.
Rev. 5:9 "And they sung a new song, saying, Thou are worthy to take the book, and to open the seals thereof: for thou wast slain, and hast redeemed "us" to God by the blood out of every kindred, and tongue, and people, and nation”.
Notice "and hast redeemed us", thus revealing their human nature. These 24 elders are redeemed men. Once their human nature was confirmed, it became obvious that the Rapture was pictured by (Rev. 4:1), as occurring before the Tribulation. Rapture for this scene, which is of the throne of God in heaven just before the 7 year Tribulation as defined (in chapters 6-19), pictures twenty four men or "elders" in the presence of God.
There are many significances tied to the number 12, but suffice it to say that God prescribed this number to have meaning and purpose of which were governmental authority, a completeness or perfection, and the authority given to mankind by God.
Twelve is a spiritual number which has to do with representation. The number twenty-four, I believe, could be two twelves’.
(1) One twelve for the Old Testament
(2) One twelve for the New Testament
The twelve prophets represent the believers of the Old Testament. The twelve disciples represent all believers from the New Testament.
There are many other schools of thought on the twenty four.
John, "the faithful witness" observes these events immediately after the church age has been concluded and just prior to the beginning of the Tribulation. These men, whether 12 who represent Israel and 12 who represent the church, or 24 outstanding Christian leaders in all church history, makes no difference, they all are redeemed men! They are redeemed saints who are in heaven just before the revelation of the Tribulation that follows. Like John, they are part of the pre-tribulation rapture in their glorified bodies worshiping all three members of the Trinity. This scene in heaven does not occur in the middle of the Tribulation or at its end, but before it begins.
These Old Testament believers were looking forward to Messiah and were preached to, when Jesus preached in hell and brought captivity captive out with Him so they will be in the same category as the New Testament believers in heaven.
Notice all twenty-four were dressed in white robes. White robes are worn by believers in Jesus, who have washed their robes in the blood of Jesus and are made white as snow. All through the Old Testament people like David were looking for the Savior. They believed, even though they were looking forward instead of backward to Him.
There are over thirty-seven Old Testament scriptures which mention the coming of Jesus Christ. These were fulfilled, every one. It is not absurd to speak of Old Testament believers.
These crowns that they had on their heads were gold. This showed that they had nothing to do with these crowns being put on their heads. Gold means the purity of God. God placed these crowns on their head. The grace of God placed these crowns on their head. They did nothing to earn them. It was a free gift from God for believing. Crowns show rulership, and we believers are promised that we will reign with Jesus.

"And out of the throne proceeded lightnings and thunderings and voices: and [there were] seven lamps of fire burning before the throne, which are the seven Spirits of God" (Rev. 4:5).

The "lightnings and thunderings" showed the majesty and awesomeness of God. Lightning, earthquakes, and thunderings throughout the Bible have been an outward proclamation of God. Even at the foot of Mount Sinai the people were afraid of God, because of just such manifestations.
This is not the fury of nature, but the firestorm of righteous fury about to come from an awesome, powerful God upon a sinful world (8:5; 11:9; 16:18).
The "seven lamps" are a symbolic number covering all the workings of the Spirit of God.
The seven spirits of God refers to the seven eyes of the Lord or characteristics of God (Zech. 4:10 and Isaiah 11:2). "The seven Spirits" mean the entirety of the power of the Spirit is manifest there at the throne and emanates out to the twenty-four or all Christendom. Fire throughout the Bible has been symbolic of God, as in the burning bush (Exodus 3:2). In (Hebrews 12:28-29), we are told to serve God with reverence and Godly fear, because God is a consuming fire.
We do not completely understand God, but we must accept and trust God. This Spirit of God which is burning is to illuminate the minds and Spirits of all who will accept it. Jesus is the Light. Somehow, all three are present in these lamps (Spirit), that illuminate.
I would like to mention here that Revelation is not written in chronological order. Just as a dream sometime skips around, so does this.
Verses 6-8: The “four beasts” or living creatures (literally, “living ones”), are probably winged angelic beings (compare Ezek. 10:15-22), who guard the throne of God. The “eyes” symbolize wisdom, and the “wings” depict movement. They worship God as did the seraphim in Isaiah’s vision (compare Isa. 6:1-3). The “lion” represents strength (compare Psalm 103:20), the “calf” service (compare Heb. 1:14), the “face” of a “man” intelligence (compare Luke 2:52), and the “eagle” swiftness (compare Dan. 9:21). The angelic vision has a strong allusion to (Ezekiel 1:4-14).

"And before the throne [there was] a sea of glass like unto crystal: and in the midst of the throne, and round about the throne, [were] four beasts full of eyes before and behind" (Rev. 4:6).

“A sea of glass": There is no sea in heaven (21:1), but the crystal pavement that serves as the floor of God’s throne stretches out like a great, glistening sea (compare Exodus 24:10; Ezek. 1:22). It is unoccupied here but in Rev. 15:2-4 it is occupied by the great multitude. It reminds us of the “molten sea of glass" made by Solomon for the temple to replace the laver in the tabernacle in the wilderness.
All around the throne were the four beasts. The Greek zoa translated “beasts” should be “living creatures”. The number "four" shows the universality of these beasts or living creatures. In (Isaiah 6:2-13 and in Ezekiel 1:5-28), these living creatures are also called "seraphim" and "cherubim" but there not the same as the above mentioned four. The zoa are seen in the book as: 1. Calling attention to the holiness of God (Rev. 4:4-Cool. 2. Falling down before the Lamb (Rev. 5:8-10). 3. Singing and playing harps of gold (Rev. 5:8-10). 4. Officiating in a priestly capacity (Rev. 5:8-10). 5. Calling for the horseman of the first four seals to “come” (Rev. 6:1-Cool. 6. Giving the seven vials to the seven angels (Rev. 15:7).
They are associated with God, the Lamb, elders, angels and all classes of redeemed and always are separate from them, so must be different from all of them (Rev. 5:6, 11, 14; 7:11; 14:3; 19:4).
These beasts, or living creatures, surrounding the throne are full of eyes which means their wisdom was overwhelming.
“Full of eyes”: Although not omniscient, an attribute reserved for God alone, these angels have a comprehensive knowledge and perception. Nothing escapes their scrutiny (compare verse Cool.
The eyes denote wisdom or intelligence. These creatures looking "before and behind" means they look back into times past, and also look forward into things to come. These living ones, or living creatures, also denote the four gospels, Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John.
Those books truly are full of wisdom. Matthew does look back at the history of Jesus, and chapter 24 looks ahead to the end times.

"And the first beast [was] like a lion, and the second beast like a calf, and the third beast had a face as a man, and the fourth beast [was] like a flying eagle" (Rev. 4:7).

The four living creatures show the four gospels: In Matthew, Jesus is shown as the Lion of the tribe of Judah. The genealogy of Jesus is in Matthew beginning with verse 1, showing that Jesus truly was the Lion of the tribe of Judah.
“First … like a lion”: In what is obviously intended as symbolic language, John compares these 4 beings with 4 of God’s earthly creations. Ezekiel indicated that every cherub has these 4 attributes. The likeness to a lion symbolizes strength and power.
“Second … like a calf”: The image of a calf demonstrates that these creatures render humble service to God.
“Third … face like that of a man: Their likeness to man shows they are rational creatures.
Fourth … like a flying eagle”: The cherubim fulfill their service to God with the swiftness of eagles’ wings.
In John 1:1, Jesus, the Word, is in fact God the Word, God the Son. God in the flesh of man.
Even though the four gospels tell the same story in essence, they also show four different personalities. You can easily see why these beasts, living creatures, are symbolically the four gospels.

"And the four beasts had each of them six wings about [him]; and [they were] full of eyes within: and they rest not day and night, saying, Holy, holy, holy, Lord God Almighty, which was, and is, and is to come" (Rev. 4:Cool.

“Full of eyes” (see note on verse 6).

Holy, holy, holy. This is the cry of these heavenly creatures who know God as He really is. It has been suggested that each "holy" is directed to one of the members of the Trinity. Then these creatures remind us of the One who "is to come." The return of Christ is guaranteed in the words of these heavenly hosts. In (Acts 1:9-11), angelic beings describe how Christ will literally return "in like manner as ye have seen him go". Here these angels in heaven reaffirm that promise.
The six wings spoken of (in Isaiah 6), seem to show humility, obedience, and reverence to God. The number six makes me believe also, that these wings show work and activity (six day work). It seems here that one of their tasks was to proclaim the holiness of God.
I really believe the three "holy, holy, holy", Lord God Almighty", indicate Father, Word, Holy Ghost. “Which was, and is, and is to come”, God’s eternal presence is not limited by time, He has always been present and will come in the future.
The "which was, and is, and is to come" just furthers that thought and shows us the eternity of this three in one. We do know from (1 John 5:7), that there are three in heaven.
1 John 5:7 "For there are three that bear record in heaven, the Father, the Word, and the Holy Ghost: and these three are one."
Verses 9-11: All of heaven “worship” the Father. The angels extol His character, and the “elders” (church), extol His creative powers. God has the right to rule and the sovereign authority to judge the earth, because He is both holy and the Creator of all.

"And when those beasts give glory and honor and thanks to him that sat on the throne, who liveth for ever and ever," (Rev. 4:9).

This "when the beasts give glory and honor and thanks" is a never ending thing. The four gospels have proclaimed this in the past, are proclaiming it now, and will proclaim it for all of eternity.
"The giving of "honor" goes on and on and on. The giving of "thanks" is to the Spirit of God, the Trinity.
The song of the living beings is giving praises not just then, not just now, but continuously. We see by this honor given it should be all glory and all honor, etc. The eternity of God is so difficult for us to understand because our minds are programmed to a life of just under one hundred years here on the earth.

"The four and twenty elders fall down before him that sat on the throne, and worship him that liveth for ever and ever, and cast their crowns before the throne, saying," (Rev. 4:10).

At the presence of God it is a normal thing to fall down prostrate at His feet. The "four and twenty elders fall down before Him" shows their great humility at the presence of God. A deep respect and honor should be given God.
"To Him that sat on the throne" is very interesting. God the Father is on the central throne, but immediately on His right hand sits God the Son, Jesus. The "throne" encompasses both the Father, and the Son, and the Holy Spirit.
The word "worship" has been misunderstood by so many. We sing about it in our songs and use it in our prayers. But do we truly know how to worship? Our churches call Sunday services, worship, but again, very little true worship goes on. The word that was translated "worship" here means "absolute reverence to God, to adore Him". One of the meanings of the word means to "kiss", like a dog licking his master's hand. Absolute humility and adoration of God is what it really means. Do we go to church to humbly worship and adore our God? A deep respect and honor should be given God.
“Cast their crowns”: Aware that God alone is responsible for the rewards they have received, they divest themselves of all honor and cast it at the feet of their King (see note on 2:10).
Why do they "cast their crowns before the throne"? These crowns are the victorious crowns that Jesus has placed on their head. They, or we, have done nothing to earn the crowns. These crowns belong to Jesus, not us. He won the victory. He placed them on our head. Everyone benefits from the victory, but Jesus won it. This is another act of humility on their part. When they throw the crowns at Jesus' feet, they are telling Him that they are His because He won them.

"Thou art worthy, O Lord, to receive glory and honor and power: for thou hast created all things, and for thy pleasure they are and were created" (Rev. 4:11).

“For thou hast created all things”: It is the Creator God who set out to redeem His creation.
We see here the worthiness of God and why He should be praised. It is, in our society, the popular thing to worship the created rather than the Creator. We are warned about this over and over throughout the Bible. Not only in terms of getting our priorities mixed up and thinking too much of money, jewels, family, homes, automobiles, and recreation (which can certainly become a God to us), but many are actually worshipping the sun, moon, stars, and rivers. In far too many Christian homes today we see totem poles, Buddha’s and all sorts of horoscope paraphernalia.
God is a jealous God. He will not allow the believer to mess around with false gods. How could we compare the Creator of it all to His creations? We must recognize God to be supreme to all others in every way. Before the world existed, He spoke, and it became. The power of his Word created all that we know.
I believe it is good to understand why He did not just leave well enough alone, and live as He was, and not bother with all of this. We have been such a problem and heartache to Him. The earth and all that's on it, was created for God's pleasure. He created us so that He could fellowship with us. We are to Jesus like our children are to us. They are great joy, but at the very same time, they can bring us hurt. The joy far outweighs the hurt. Perhaps that is the way it is with God dealing with us. The joy outweighs the sorrow. We see here that the whole universe was created for God.
Back to top Go down
View user profile http://www.facebook.com/home.php?ref=home#/group.php?gid=4902422
 
Revelation Chapter 4
View previous topic View next topic Back to top 
Page 1 of 1
 Similar topics
-
» ALL PRAISES TO GOD!...Revelation of Church dream
» Zebari discuss with Ki-moon will submit reports on Iraq out of Chapter VII
» Hakeem calls for European support to relief Iraq from UN 7th chapter
» The Parliamentary Committee on Foreign Relations invites the international community remove Iraq from Chapter VII
» Karbala urges UN SGSR to help relieving Iraq from 7th Chapter

Permissions in this forum:You cannot reply to topics in this forum
End Times Revealed :: Bible Studies :: BIBLE STUDY INFORMATION :: Book of Revelation-
Jump to: